Dr Keen Mhlanga
The private sector has actively contributed in the delivery of urban transportation infrastructure assets across the world. Typically, PPI methodologies have been utilised to develop urban rail transit (URT) systems. Governments’ preferred mode of procurement has been Public-Private Partnership (PPP) agreements or variants thereof.
However, PPPs have failed to give value for money to governments and sufficient operational income to concessionaires. As a result, governments have been compelled to investigate different sources of finance in order to acquire and sustain the economic viability of a city’s URTs. LVC has been recognised as a viable financial mechanism that may be incorporated with a PPP to assure its economic success.
The international world has recognised cities as vital drivers of development and poverty reduction by adding SDG 11 in the United Nations 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda. Despite the fact that the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) have no legal authority, SDG 11 aims to make cities and human settlements across the world “inclusive,” “safe,” “resilient,” and “sustainable” by 2030.
Collaboration between a Government agency and a private-sector enterprise to fund, create, and run projects such as public transit networks, parks, and convention centres is referred to as a public-private partnership. A public-private partnership can allow a project to be finished sooner or perhaps make it possible in the first place.
There are numerous types of public-private partnerships. The first is Build Operate Transfer (BOT), in which the Government transfers all construction and operations to a private entity for a fixed number of years (often several decades or more).
After that time, it is turned over to the government. Second, Build Operate Own (BOO), which is similar to a BOT but does not need the private business to ever handover the project to the government. Third, Design-Build (DB) contracts were government contracts with a private company to design and build a project for a price.
The Government retains ownership and has the option of operating it in-house or contracting out operations. Finally, Buy Build Operate (BBO) is a scenario in which the government sells a pre-existing project that has already been finished and may have been run by the Government for some time to a private party, who will completely take control. The private party may be required to invest in the project’s rehabilitation or expansion.
Concessions of tax or other operational revenue, liability protection, or partial ownership rights over ostensibly public services and property to private sector, for-profit organizations are common in public-private partnerships.
Experts are increasingly promoting public-private partnerships (PPPs) as an innovative policy instrument for addressing inefficiencies in traditional public procurement systems. Many developing nations’ governments promote PPPs because they will address infrastructural deficits.
Contract terms for public-private collaborations are often 20 to 30 years or longer. Financing is provided in part by the private sector, while payments from the public sector and/or customers are required throughout the course of the project.
The private partner contributes to the project’s design, completion, implementation, and finance, while the public partner concentrates on defining and monitoring compliance with the objectives.
Risks are dispersed between public and private parties through a negotiating process, preferably but not always according to each other’s ability to analyse, control, and cope with them.
Whereas public works and services may be paid for by a charge from the public authority’s income budget, as with hospital projects, concessions may include the ability to direct users’ money, as with toll motorways.
Payments for services such as shadow tolls on highways are based on actual usage. When wastewater treatment is involved, payment is made through fees collected from consumers.
It is commonly acknowledged that community participation is critical for accomplishing long-term development goals. While governments in numerous low-income countries have implemented community participation for electrification efforts, the effectiveness of traditional top-down techniques to capturing community demands has been questioned.
There are considerable discrepancies in Uganda and Zambia between community demands for needs-centred involvement and how the public and commercial sectors actively cooperate.
Vertical and horizontal disconnects within the public sector, as well as difficult and poor information exchange, are important institutional barriers to needs-based community engagement. The biggest barrier for energy corporations is the minimal value ascribed to a thorough understanding of community requirements.
The years after the end of martial law and Taiwan’s democracy have seen significant political and social development. Public-private partnerships (PPP) have been stressed as the major mode of providing public services in order to increase societal engagement while limiting direct governmental control of economic and social development initiatives.
In Kenyan commercial state-owned firms and public-private partnerships, technical skills, financial participation, risk minimisation, and accountability were important variables in project performance.
There is a significant and positive association between project performance and financial contribution, risk minimisation, and responsibility.
A significant and positive link between project success and financial contribution, risk management, and accountability Kenyan commercial state firms created systems for financial contribution, risk reduction, and accountability, which were crucial in determining project performance in the institutions.
The absence of public-private sector collaborations in Zimbabwe during the last two decades has been blamed for the country’s economic disaster and infrastructural ruin. Although not many projects have been completed, the Government’s swift involvement in the previous two years to execute PPPs has been particularly obvious in road network re-construction.
Because the financing model of these PPPs has taken centre stage, the primary goal of this research is to assess the performance of the PPP development finance model on infrastructure projects in Zimbabwe. PPPs are an alternative source of finance for infrastructure projects that have shown to relieve government reliance on cash for capital-intensive projects.
Ruwa peoples rights to control over the planning of their local surroundings and affordable access to essential public facilities and services were eroded by private-public-led urban development.
Ruwa was one of Zimbabwe’s first postcolonial towns to originate and flourish through a private-public partnership. While the fact that the private-public partnership strategy was critical in the creation of Ruwa Town, people were excluded from decision-making processes despite being important players in the development process. Residents should take control of their communities’ development processes through grassroots engagement.
Private investors are less interested in PPPs in heavily indebted and well-governed countries. Although years of PPP experience initially attract additional PPPs, subsequent experiences are disappointing and discouraging of future PPPs. The most important criteria in attracting PPP are market size, buying power in terms of per capita GDP, and inflation.
Countries with large foreign exchange reserves and larger petroleum exports are more likely to attract PPP. Similarly, crisis-stricken countries seek more PPPs. It is discovered that Government effectiveness has a negative influence on PPP.
Partnerships between private businesses and governments benefit both parties. For example, private-sector technology and innovation can assist increase the operational efficiency of providing public services.
For its part, the public sector offers incentives for the private sector to complete projects on time and within budget. Furthermore, economic diversification makes the country more competitive in terms of enabling its infrastructural base and promoting related construction, equipment, support services, and other industries.
A prompt completion of the already initiated policy and institutional framework process to govern PPPs, which would also include putting in place measures centred on risk analysis and management during the process, issues concerning financing, and issues concerning mobilisation and incentivising the private sector to participate in the process.
The revamping of the legislative framework, harnessing the demographic dividend, rolling out PPPs in-basket training workshops, formulating policy documents on PPPs, incentives for risk, ensuring community participation through enlisting traditional leaders, and systemising policy consistency and predictability to build investor confidence as the framework for sustainable implementation of PPPs in the new dispensation are all priorities.
Dr Keen Mhlanga is a global financial expect, key note speaker, investment advisor with high skills in digital banking, corporate and development finance. A dedicated, hardworking financial genius and business magnate. He is the executive chairman of FinKing Financial Advisory. Send your feedback to [email protected], contact him on 0777597526.