Dr Linda Haj Omar
According to Penn State researcher Russ Graham, the lifestyles of mammals gave them an advantage when the asteroid struck the area that is today’s Yucatan peninsula about 65 million years ago. In short, mammals survived because of their ability to adapt, change, and evolve. This brings us to this week’s column, which centres on the advent of Artificial Intelligence.
Artificial intelligence (AI) is commonly referred to as the simulation of human intelligence in machines that are programmed to think like humans and mimic their actions. The term may also be applied to any machine that exhibits traits associated with a human mind such as learning and problem-solving.
Examples of Artificial Intelligence (AI)
◆ Maps and Navigation.
◆ Facial Detection and Recognition.
◆ Text Editors or Autocorrect.
◆ Search and Recommendation Algorithms.
◆ Digital Assistants.
◆ Social Media.
What are the 4 types of artificial intelligence?
AI can be categorised into four types or categories are as follows:
◆ Type 1: Reactive machines. These AI systems have no memory and are task specific. An example is Deep Blue, the IBM chess programme that beat Garry Kasparov in the 1990s.
◆ Type 2: Limited memory. These AI systems have memory, so they can use past experiences to inform future decisions. Some of the decision-making functions in self-driving cars are designed this way.
◆ Type 3: Theory of mind. Theory of mind is a psychology term. When applied to AI, it means that the system would have the social intelligence to understand emotions.
This type of AI will be able to infer human intentions and predict behaviour, a necessary skill for AI systems to become integral members of human teams.
◆ Type 4: Self-awareness. In this category, AI systems have a sense of self, which gives them consciousness. Machines with self-awareness understand their own current state. This type of AI does not yet exist.
Why is Artificial Intelligence (AI) important?
AI is important because it can give enterprises insights into their operations that they may not have been aware of previously and because, in some cases, AI can perform tasks better than humans.
Particularly when it comes to repetitive, detail-oriented tasks like analysing large numbers of legal documents to ensure relevant fields are filled in properly, AI tools often complete jobs quickly and with relatively few errors.
As another example, Google has become one of the largest players for a range of online services by using machine learning to understand how people use their services and then improving them.
In Africa, AI could play an important role to improve the lives of citizens across the continent. From healthcare and education to agriculture and financial services, AI can play a vital role in addressing some of the most pressing challenges facing Africa today.
What are the advantages of Artificial Intelligence (AI)
◆ Good at detail-oriented jobs.
◆ Reduced time for data-heavy tasks.
◆ Delivers consistent results; and
◆ AI-powered virtual agents are always available.
Some key examples and uses of AI technology today
AI is incorporated into a variety of different types of technology. Here are six examples:
◆ Automation. When paired with AI technologies, automation tools can expand the volume and types of tasks performed. An example is Robotic Process Automation.
◆ Machine learning. This is the science of getting a computer to act without programming. There are three types of machine learning algorithms, those are; Supervised learning Unsupervised learning and Reinforcement learning.
◆ Machine vision. This technology gives a machine the ability to see. Machine vision captures and analyses visual information using a camera, analog-to-digital conversion, and digital signal processing.
◆ Natural language processing (NLP). This is the processing of human language by a computer program. One of the older and best-known examples of NLP is spam detection and the tasks include text
translation, sentiment analysis and speech recognition.
◆ Robotics. This field of engineering focuses on the design and manufacturing of robots. Robots are often used to perform tasks that are difficult for humans to perform or perform consistently. For example, robots are used in assembly lines for car production.
◆ Self-driving cars. Autonomous vehicles use a combination of computer vision, image recognition and deep learning to build automated skill at piloting a vehicle while staying in a given lane and avoiding unexpected obstructions, such as pedestrians.
◆ AI in finance. AI in personal finance applications, such as Intuit Mint or TurboTax, is disrupting financial institutions. Other programs, such as IBM Watson, have been applied to the process of buying a home.
◆ AI in law. Using AI to help automate the legal industry’s labour-intensive processes is saving time and improving client service.
◆ AI in banking. Banks are successfully employing chatbots to make their customers aware of services and offerings and to handle transactions that don’t require human intervention.
◆ AI in transportation. AI technologies are used in transportation to manage traffic, predict flight delays, and make ocean shipping safer and more efficient.
◆ Security. Organisations use machine learning in security information and event management software and related areas to detect anomalies and identify suspicious activities that indicate threats.
Medlico Research and Training Centre not only strives to be in sync with the developments in Artificial Intelligence but impart what it learns to its partners that they may equally be at the top of the game.
Through its research department, all developments happening in Artificial Intelligence captured.
While through the training centre, organisations such as Government Ministries and Departments, Civil Society and private companies are capacitated to handle the inevitable A.I transition.
◆ Article prepared by Dr Linda Haj Omar, Founder & CEO of Medlico Research & Training Centre.
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